H. R. 931
To facilitate famine relief efforts and a comprehensive solution to
the war in Sudan.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
March 7, 2001
Mr. TANCREDO (for himself, Mr. PAYNE, Mr. LANTOS, Mr. WOLF, Mr. WATTS of
Oklahoma, Mr. PITTS, Mr. CAMP, Mr. Evans, Mr. WELDON of Florida, Ms. PELOSI, Mr.
MCNULTY, Mr. WHITFIELD, Mr. LEWIS of Kentucky, Ms. RIVERS, Mr. BISHOP, Mrs.
TAUSCHER, Mr. KUCINICH, Mr. NEAL of Massachusetts, Ms. NORTON, Mr. DOOLITTLE, Mr.
LAMPSON, Mr. UPTON, Mr. HEFLEY, and Mr. CLEMENT) introduced the following bill;
which was referred to the Committee on International Relations
To facilitate famine relief efforts and a comprehensive solution to the war in
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the 'Sudan Peace Act'.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
Congress makes the following findings:
(1) The Government of Sudan has intensified its prosecution of the war against
areas outside of its control, which has already cost more than 2,000,000 lives
and has displaced more than 4,000,000.
(2) A viable, comprehensive, and internationally sponsored peace process,
protected from manipulation, presents the best chance for a permanent resolution
of the war, protection of human rights, and a self-sustaining Sudan.
(3) Continued strengthening and reform of humanitarian relief operations in Sudan
is an essential element in the effort to bring an end to the war.
(4) Continued leadership by the United States is critical.
(5) Regardless of the future political status of the areas of Sudan outside of
the control of the Government of Sudan, the absence of credible civil authority
and institutions is a major impediment to achieving self-sustenance by the
Sudanese people and to meaningful progress toward a viable peace process.
(6) Through manipulation of traditional rivalries among peoples in areas outside
their full control, the Government of Sudan has effectively used divide and
conquer techniques to subjugate their population, and internationally sponsored
reconciliation efforts have played a critical role in reducing the tactic's
effectiveness and human suffering.
(7) The Government of Sudan is utilizing and organizing militias, Popular Defense
Forces, and other irregular units for raiding and slaving parties in areas
outside of the control of the Government of Sudan in an effort to severely
disrupt the ability of those populations to sustain themselves. The tactic is in
addition to the overt use of bans on air transport relief flights in prosecuting
the war through selective starvation and is used to minimize the Government of
Sudan's accountability internationally.
(8) The Government of Sudan has repeatedly stated that it intends to use the
expected proceeds from future oil sales to increase the tempo and lethality of
the war against the areas outside its control.
(9) Through its power to veto plans for air transport flights under the United
Nations relief operation, Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), the Government of Sudan
has been able to manipulate the receipt of food aid by the Sudanese people from
the United States and other donor countries as a devastating weapon of war in the
ongoing effort by the Government of Sudan to subdue areas of Sudan outside of the
(10) The efforts of the United States and other donors in delivering relief and
assistance through means outside OLS have played a critical role in addressing
the deficiencies in OLS and offset the Government of Sudan's manipulation of food
donations to advantage in the civil war in Sudan.
(11) While the immediate needs of selected areas in Sudan facing starvation have
been addressed in the near term, the population in areas of Sudan outside of the
control of the Government of Sudan are still in danger of extreme disruption of
their ability to sustain themselves.
(12) The Nuba Mountains and many areas in Bahr al Ghazal, the Upper Nile, and the
Blue Nile regions have been excluded completely from relief distribution by OLS,
consequently placing their populations at increased risk of famine.
(13) At a cost which has sometimes exceeded $1,000,000 per day, and with a
primary focus on providing only for the immediate food needs of the recipients,
the current international relief operations are neither sustainable nor desirable
in the long term.
(14) The ability of populations to defend themselves against attack in areas
outside the Government of Sudan's control has been severely compromised by the
disengagement of the front-line sponsor states, fostering the belief within
officials of the Government of Sudan that success on the battlefield can be
(15) The United States should use all means of pressure available to facilitate a
comprehensive solution to the war in Sudan, including--
(A) the multilateralization of economic and diplomatic tools to compel the
Government of Sudan to enter into a good faith peace process;
(B) the support or creation of viable democratic civil authority and institutions
in areas of Sudan outside government control;
(C) continued active support of people-to-people reconciliation mechanisms and
efforts in areas outside of government control;
(D) the strengthening of the mechanisms to provide humanitarian relief to those
(E) cooperation among the trading partners of the United States and within
multilateral institutions toward those ends.
SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.
In this Act:
(1) GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN- The term 'Government of Sudan' means the National
Islamic Front government in Khartoum, Sudan.
(2) OLS- The term 'OLS' means the United Nations relief operation carried out by
UNICEF, the World Food Program, and participating relief organizations known as 'Operation
SEC. 4. CONDEMNATION OF SLAVERY, OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES, AND TACTICS OF
THE GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN.
(A) violations of human rights on all sides of the conflict in Sudan;
(B) the Government of Sudan's overall human rights record, with regard to both
the prosecution of the war and the denial of basic human and political rights to
(C) the ongoing slave trade in Sudan and the role of the Government of Sudan in
abetting and tolerating the practice;
(D) the Government of Sudan's use and organization of 'murahalliin' or 'mujahadeen',
Popular Defense Forces (PDF), and regular Sudanese Army units into organized and
coordinated raiding and slaving parties in Bahr al Ghazal, the Nuba Mountains,
the Upper Nile, and the Blue Nile regions; and
(E) aerial bombardment of civilian targets that is sponsored by the Government of
(2) recognizes that, along with selective bans on air transport relief flights by
the Government of Sudan, the use of raiding and slaving parties is a tool for
creating food shortages and is used as a systematic means to destroy the
societies, culture, and economies of the Dinka, Nuer, and Nuba peoples in a
policy of low-intensity ethnic cleansing.
SEC. 5. SUPPORT FOR AN INTERNATIONALLY SANCTIONED PEACE PROCESS.
(a) FINDINGS- Congress hereby recognizes that--
(1) a single viable, internationally and regionally sanctioned peace process
holds the greatest opportunity to promote a negotiated, peaceful settlement to
the war in Sudan; and
(2) resolution to the conflict in Sudan is best made through a peace process
based on the Declaration of Principles reached in Nairobi, Kenya, on July 20,
(b) UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC SUPPORT- The Secretary of State is authorized to
utilize the personnel of the Department of State for the support of--
(1) the ongoing negotiations between the Government of Sudan and opposition
(2) any necessary peace settlement planning or implementation; and
(3) other United States diplomatic efforts supporting a peace process in Sudan.
SEC. 6. MULTILATERAL PRESSURE ON COMBATANTS.
It is the sense of Congress that--
(1) the United Nations should be used as a tool to facilitating peace and
recovery in Sudan; and
(2) the President, acting through the United States Permanent Representative to
the United Nations, should seek to--
(A) revise the terms of Operation Lifeline Sudan to end the veto power of the
Government of Sudan over the plans by Operation Lifeline Sudan for air transport
of relief flights and, by doing so, to end the manipulation of the delivery of
those relief supplies to the advantage of the Government of Sudan on the
(B) investigate the practice of slavery in Sudan and provide mechanisms for its
(C) sponsor a condemnation of the Government of Sudan each time it subjects
civilians to aerial bombardment.
SEC. 7. REPORTING REQUIREMENT.
Section 116 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151n) is amended by
adding at the end the following:
'(g) In addition to the requirements of subsections (d) and (f), the report
required by subsection (d) shall include--
'(1) a description of the sources and current status of Sudan's financing and
construction of oil exploitation infrastructure and pipelines, the effects on the
inhabitants of the oil fields regions of such financing and construction, and the
Government of Sudan's ability to finance the war in Sudan;
'(2) a description of the extent to which that financing was secured in the
United States or with involvement of United States citizens;
'(3) the best estimates of the extent of aerial bombardment by the Government of
Sudan forces in areas outside its control, including targets, frequency, and best
estimates of damage; and
'(4) a description of the extent to which humanitarian relief has been obstructed
or manipulated by the Government of Sudan or other forces for the purposes of the
war in Sudan.'.
SEC. 8. CONTINUED USE OF NON-OLS ORGANIZATIONS FOR RELIEF EFFORTS.
(a) SENSE OF CONGRESS- It is the sense of Congress that the President should
continue to increase the use of non-OLS agencies in the distribution of relief
supplies in southern Sudan.
(b) REPORT- Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the
President shall submit a detailed report to Congress describing the progress made
toward carrying out subsection (a).
SEC. 9. CONTINGENCY PLAN FOR ANY BAN ON AIR TRANSPORT RELIEF FLIGHTS.
(a) PLAN- The President shall develop a contingency plan to provide, outside
United Nations auspices if necessary, the greatest possible amount of United
States Government and privately donated relief to all affected areas in Sudan,
including the Nuba Mountains and the Upper Nile and the Blue Nile regions, in the
event the Government of Sudan imposes a total, partial, or incremental ban on OLS
air transport relief flights.
(b) REPROGRAMMING AUTHORITY- Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in
carrying out the plan developed under subsection (a), the President may reprogram
up to 100 percent of the funds available for support of OLS operations (but for
this subsection) for the purposes of the plan.
Last edited 02/28/2001
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