Natural theology is the science of the existence and
attributes of Allah based upon the world around us. Natural
theology is also called 'general' revelation, because it is the
general revelation of Allah to all of humanity through creation.
Since natural theology begins with the world around us, it is the
most exoteric (opposite of esoteric) or zahir truth there is. The
natural world is experienced by all of humankind. No one is
isolated from the air we breathe, from the water we drink, from the
food we eat, from the light of the sun we enjoy, and from looking at
the starry skies at night. Natural theology does not rest any
of its ideas or conclusions upon a sacred text, such as the Bible or
the Qur'an. Natural theology has different logical arguments
that it uses to develop a doctrine of Allah.
A. The cosmological argument
B. The Kalaam cosmological argument
C. The teleological argument
D. The ontological argument
E. The transcendental argument
F. The moral argument
G. The perfection argument
Natural theology or general revelation takes a reasoned position
against non-monotheistic religious beliefs. For example,
Christian theists present their reasons why the following belief
systems are logically untenable.
D. Finite godism
The results of the investigations of natural theology shows
logically that the existence of a single supernatural cause is
necessary to account for the universe's existence.
Furthermore, this one Divine Being must have these attributes and
Based upon creation, it is this kind of theistic Allah that must
exist if the existence, order, and beings of the universe are to
have sufficient reason for their existence.
The conclusions of natural theology are vital to note.
Because, if the conclusions of natural theology are valid and sound,
then human beings can have some true knowledge of Allah apart from
any alleged sacred book. This is important to note because, if
an alleged prophet were to act and teach contrary to the doctrines
of natural theology, then the prophet would clearly not be a prophet
of Allah. This conclusion would be warranted because the teachings
of a true prophet of Allah should not contradict doctrines of
natural theology, because both natural theology and true prophetic
teachings have the same cause, namely, Allah. So, if an
alleged prophet were to contradict natural theology, we should
reject the purported prophet as a false prophet.
There are many who claim to have a sacred book to which they
appeal to support their particular religious beliefs. Now, if
an appeal to a sacred scripture were the only necessary basis for a
religious belief, then all religious beliefs should be equally
justifiable by an appeal to some alleged sacred scripture.
Natural theology provides a common ground from which to investigate
the claims of an alleged prophet and his alleged scripture. The
reason that theistic apologetics provides a common ground is that it
begins with creation and the necessary and logical ramifications of
the study of reality that surrounds all of us.
The concept of natural theology is noted in the Old and New
Testaments of the Bible. Both testaments appeal to
creation as a witness to the reality and being of God.
The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the
work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech;
night after night they display knowledge. There is no
speech or language where their voice is not heard. Their voice
goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the
world. In the heavens he has pitched a tent for the sun, Ps
Since what may be known about God is plain to them, because
God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the
world God's invisible qualities-- his eternal power and divine
nature-- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has
been made, so that men are without excuse. Rom 1:19-20 (NIV)
Natural theology provides a rational common ground for all
humanity. It provides a good basis for theistic belief. It
presents rational proofs for the being, essence, nature, and
attributes of Allah. So, classical Christians believe that
Allah's creation is intelligible and that creation provides clear
proof of Allah's supreme Being to all of humankind. This means
that some true knowledge of Allah can be obtained by reflecting upon
the universe as we see it today.
For books on the subject of Natural Theology, see
Natural Theology references.
Last edited 01/13/2000
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